‘Deep River’ by Shusaku Endo (Review)

Shusaku Endo is one of our recent additions to the J-Lit Giants hall of fame, and a well deserved one.  I’ve enjoyed several of his books, and I’ve had this novel, highly recommended, on the shelves for a long time.  Fortunately, it didn’t disappoint…

Deep River (translated by Van C. Gessel, published by New Directions) is centred on a package tour to India by a group of Japanese tourists in October 1984 (the date is significant…).  Over the course of just over two-hundred pages, we meet many people, all with different motivations for making the trip abroad.

Four of the group members stand out.  There’s Numada, a children’s author, who finds peace in nature, preferring animals to people; old soldier Kiguchi, returning to the subcontinent to make offerings to his dead colleagues;  Mitsuko, a single woman searching for meaning in her empty life; and Isobe, an old man whose wife recently died of cancer.  Her last wish was for him to look for her after her death – you see, she believes in reincarnation…

The story starts off slowly as we learn about the background of the main characters and their reasons for joining the tour.  While interesting in its way, I was a little impatient at times, with the writer taking half the book to get us to India.  It is important though, as these first chapters set up everything that happens when we arrive.

Of the main characters, it’s perhaps Isobe and Mitsuko (who nursed Isobe’s wife in hospital) who stand out.  Isobe is a typical, unemotional Japanese salaryman, learning to cope with life alone after decades of being cared for in a conventional, dry Japanese marriage.  His wife’s death throws him off guard, leaving him unable to quite grasp what has happened:

“Isobe could not bring himself to believe that the strangely pallid fragments of bone strewn in the box were those of his wife.  What the hell is this?  What are we doing? He mumbled to himself as he stood beside his weeping mother-in-law and several other female relatives.  This isn’t her.”
p.18 (New Directions, 1994)

He doesn’t believe in reincarnation, but with his life partner gone, he decides it’s worth thinking about.  And so he sets off to look for his wife…

Mitsuko is a very different case.  Divorced, jaded, angry – she’s looking for something to occupy her as she exclaims:

“Just what the hell is it I want?” (p.68)

Despite her affluence and attractive appearance, she’s trapped in an empty life, seeing herself in the tragic heroine of a French novel she reads, Thérèse Desqueyroux.  Her fate is linked with that of an aspiring catholic priest Otsu, her former lover, who she attempted to seduce and steal from God during her university years.

Otsu, while absent for long periods of the novel, is another important figure.  He’s a Japanese Christian with dangerous heretical opinions, views which prevent him from ever progressing in his quest to become a priest.  Pantheistic and inclusive, he’s a Christian of the east, unable to accept the strict doctrines of the Catholic church.  In many ways, it’s inevitable that he’ll end up in India.

When he sees the Ganges, it’s as if he’s found what he’s been looking for all this time.  It’s a river of life and death, inclusive and welcoming:

“The river, as always, silently flowed by.  The river cared nothing about the corpses that would eventually be burned and scattered into itself, or about the unmoving male mourners who appeared to cradle their heads in their arms.  It was evident here that death was simply a part of nature.” (pp.144/5)

The river is a backdrop to the later story and the scene of several pivotal events.  Those who stay by the river, giving up on the usual tours, get to catch glimpses of the ‘true’ India.  There are weddings, beggars, caste discussions and filth…

The tour group, of course, is no homogeneous unit, but a small microcosm of society.  It consists of many people with different reasons for making the trip, each of whom sees India in their own way.  In addition to the main characters, we also have a young married couple who loathe the dirt and noise of the country – and a tour guide who loves the country and hates the people he has in tow…  The tourists are chance fellow travellers, people with little in common thrown together for a short time – but isn’t that exactly what life is?

Deep River is a beautiful novel containing stories about people with issues in the late 20th century.  In a consumer society which has lost its way, it seems that everyone has their own cross to bear.  In discussing pantheism and Christianity, reincarnation and nihilism, Endo (along with his creations) asks us how we should live our lives.  Otsu, who perhaps has thought most about this problem, eventually finds an answer of sorts in the words of Gandhi:

“There are many different religions, but they are merely various paths leading to the same place.  What difference does it make which of those separate paths we walk, so long as they all arrive at the identical destination?” (p.191)

That could just about be a fitting epitaph for a great book.


12 thoughts on “‘Deep River’ by Shusaku Endo (Review)

  1. I read this book almost on accident. I think it really should be shelved in the Christian Fiction section, where I would never look. I think someone on-line recommended a different book by Endo, but this was the one I found at my local used book shop.

    I loved it. I was moved deeply by it almost to the point of going back to church, or something equivalent to church. I've read another by Endo, The Samurai, which was just as Christian and just as good, and will certainly read more. He is the best writing on the question of faith that I have read.

    But that question aside, he offers plenty for people who are not interested in the question of faith, too.


  2. Strange cover – it looks like the cover of some seventies pamphlet advocating meditation. I must try read Silence again. I don't think I finished it the first time I read it (around thirty years ago). Maybe now is the time..


  3. Hi Mr.Tony, I have been reading your blog for quite a while now and I am astounded by the quality and quantity of literature you read. You really are an inspiration! More so for me as I edit my college magazine 'Beyond the Bestsellers', which reviews books- translated and untranslated- from Indian regional languages. To all my young and ambitious reviewers I suggest your blog, a really great place for quality literature reviews. Thanks for all the distinct reviews you put up!

    As for today's review, its brilliant, as usual.To the point. However I found the sentence “Those who stay by the river, giving up on the usual tours, get to catch glimpses of the true India. There are weddings, beggars, caste discussions and filth… ” ,rather hurtful. India, against common opinion, is far more than that, Mr. Tony, not just big fat weddings and filth.

    Anyway, overall, you are the best! Thanks once again. Cheers!


  4. Atharva – Thanks for the kind words 🙂

    With the comment above, perhaps the word true was ill chosen ('true' inside quotation marks would have been better…), and it's meant more to represent the contrast between the sanitised view most of the tourists get (air-conditioned bus tours to the Taj Mahal etc) as opposed to the street-level realities the main characters experience.

    The fact is that these characters do get to see the 'true' India because they experience all facets of the country, not just a glossy, exotic stylised image…

    …although I'm rather disappointed that there is no mention of cricket 😉


  5. Ah, yes, cricket! It forms an important part of our culture, although I should add that India's on-going tour of New Zealand is rather disastrous. 😦

    And yes, I agree with your explanation, Mr. Tony, guess I should read the reviews more carefully! Thanks for the efforts! Cheers! 🙂 🙂


  6. Nice review as usual. My favourite Endo books are Scandal and Wonderful Fool. Scandal seems underrated to me, don't here a lot of talk about that one, but I loved that one.


Every comment left on my blog helps a fairy find its wings, so please be generous - do it for the fairies.

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.